In January during the Lithuanian Wars of Independence , War School of Kaunas was established and started to train soldiers who were soon sent to the front to strengthen the fighting Lithuanian Army. Due to the exceptional discipline and regularity the Lithuanian Air Force was an example for other military units. The ANBO 41 was far ahead of the most modern foreign reconnaissance aircraft of that time in structural features, and most importantly in speed and in rate of climb.
At the time, Kaunas had a Jewish population of 35,—40,, about one-quarter of the city's total population. Kaunas had a rich and varied Jewish culture. There were almost Jewish organizations, 40 synagogues, many Yiddish schools, 4 Hebrew high schools , a Jewish hospital , and scores of Jewish-owned businesses. The treaty resulted in five Soviet military bases with 20, troops established across Lithuania in exchange for the Lithuania's historical capital Vilnius.
On 14 June just before midnight, the last meeting of the Lithuanian Government was held in Kaunas. During it, the ultimatum presented by the Soviet Union was debated. After the occupation, the Soviets immediately took brutal action against the high-ranking officials of the state. The army itself was initially renamed the Lithuanian People's Army; however, later it was reorganized into the 29th Rifle Corps of the Soviet Union.
Shortly afterwards, on June 17, the puppet People's Government of Lithuania was formed, which consistently destroyed Lithuanian society and political institutions and opened the way for the Communist Party to establish itself. In order to establish the legitimacy of the government and design the plans of Lithuania's "legal accession to the USSR", on July 1, the Seimas of Lithuania was dismissed and elections to the puppet People's Seimas were announced.
The controlled passports had imprints and falsified elections to the People's Seimas were won by the Lithuanian Labour People's Union, who obeyed the occupiers' proposal to "ask" the Soviet authorities to have Lithuania admitted to the Soviet Union. After the occupation, the Lithuanian Diplomatic Service did not recognized the new occupants authority and started the diplomatic liberation campaign of Lithuania.
The uprising soon expanded to Vilnius and other locations. Its main goal was not to fight with the Soviets, but to secure the city from inside secure organizations, institutions, enterprises and declare independence. By the evening of June 22, the Lithuanians controlled the Presidential Palace , post office, telephone and telegraph, and radio station.
The control of Vilnius and most of the Lithuania's territory was also shortly taken over by the rebels. The commander of the Red Army's th Rifle Division colonel Piotr Ivanov reported to the 11th Army Staff that during the retreat of his division through Kaunas "local counterrevolutionaries from the shelters deliberately fired on the Red Army, the detachments suffering heavy losses of soldiers and military equipment". Many people listened to the Lithuanian national anthem with tears in their eyes. The message was being repeated several times in different languages. The Provisional Government hoped that the Germans would re-establish Lithuanian independence or at least allow some degree of autonomy similar to the Slovak Republic , was seeking the protection of its citizens and did not support the Nazis ' Holocaust policy.
During the meeting, the Nazis were condemned for their actions against Jews and it was decided to help them. Although, they participants of the meeting understood that the help will be very limited, because already in the beginning of the Nazi occupation it was announced that the Jews are not under the competence of Lithuanian institutions. The young Lithuanian state enthusiastically pledges to contribute to the organization of Europe on a new basis in front of the whole world innocent conscience. The Lithuanian Nation, exhausted from the terror of the brutal Bolshevism , decided to build its future on the basis of national unity and social justice.
The rebels radioed the Germans for assistance. The units were bombed by the Luftwaffe and did not reach the city. It was the first coordinated Lithuanian—German action. On June 26, the German military command ordered the rebel groups to disband and disarm. Such a form, although not having anything against individuals, is unacceptable to the Germans. The current Provisional Government should be transformed into a National Committee or Council under the German military authority.
The Provisional Government, not agreeing to become an instrument of the German occupiers,disbanded itself on August 5, after signing a protest for the Germans action of suspending the Lithuanian Government powers. Members of the Provisional Government then went as a body to the Garden of the Vytautas the Great War Museum , where they laid a wreath near the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in the presence of numerous audience. The Sicherheitsdienst confiscated the pictures of the wreath-laying ceremony, thinking that it could be dangerous for the German occupation policy in Lithuania.
The government's powers were taken over by the new occupants. Jews began settling in Kaunas in the second half of the 17th century. The occupation was accompanied by arrests, confiscations, and the elimination of all free institutions. Jewish community organizations disappeared almost overnight.
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Soviet authorities confiscated the property of many Jews, while hundreds were exiled to Siberia. Zwartendijk agreed to help them and Jews who had fled from German-occupied Poland also sought his assistance. This gave many refugees an opportunity to leave Lithuania for the Far East via the Trans-Siberian railway. Prior to the construction of the Ninth Fort museum on the site, archaeologists unearthed a mass grave and personal belongings of the Jewish victims. The Ninth Fortress has been renovated into a memorial for the wars and is the site where nearly 50, Lithuanians were killed during Nazi occupation.
Of these deaths, over 30, were Jews. Beginning in , the Red Army began offensives that eventually led to the reconquest of all three of the Baltic states. Kaunas again became the major centre of resistance against the Soviet regime. From the very start of the Lithuanian partisans war, the most important partisan districts were based around Kaunas. In people in the Kaunas region supported the uprising in Hungary by rioting.
It led to new forms of resistance: passive resistance all around Lithuania. The continuous oppression of the Catholic Church and its resistance caused the appearance of the Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania. The Kronika started a new phase of resistance in the life of Lithuania's Catholic Church and of all Lithuania fighting against the occupation by making known to the world the violation of the human rights and freedoms in Lithuania for almost two decades.
The bodies of Lithuanians who died in Siberian exile were brought back to their homeland for reburial, and the anniversaries of deportations as well as the important dates in Lithuanian history began to be noted with speeches and demonstrations. After the services, , persons gathered in the centre of Kaunas to participate in the dedication of a new monument to freedom to replace the monument that had been torn down by the Soviet authorities after World War II. Darius and S. Since the restoration of independence, improving substantially air and land transport links with Western Europe have made Kaunas easily accessible to foreign tourists.
Kaunas hosted finals of the widely appreciated EuroBasket The city covers 15, hectares. Parks, groves, gardens, nature reserves , and agricultural areas occupy 8, hectares. Kaunas is divided into 12 elderates :. Despite its northern location, the climate in Kaunas is relatively mild compared to other locations at similar latitudes, mainly because of the Baltic Sea.
Because of its latitude, daylight in Kaunas extends 17 hours in midsummer, to only around 7 hours in midwinter. Spring and autumn are generally cool to mild. Kaunas city is a centered around culture.
The "Kaunas Garage Massacre" in
The Old Town of Kaunas is located at the confluence of the Nemunas and Neris Rivers where old architectural monuments and other historical buildings are located. Located to the East of the Old Town is the city's New Town, which started developing in and got its name when it became a distinct part of the city.
The Old Town is the historical center of Kaunas. The streets in Old Town have been turned to pedestrian sidewalks, so it is best to tour the place by foot. The Town Hall in Kaunas played an important role in the Medieval Times as a center for trade, festivals, and criminals were brought here for punishment.
The Town Hall was originally built with wooden frames, however, after numerous fires in they began to construct buildings with stone. The stone buildings, however, also burned down so the Town Hall that stands today was constructed in a more advanced way, which took from to The Town Hall is still a center of culture today, it holds weddings and is the home of the Museum of Ceramics. Kaunas is often called a city of museums, because of the abundance and variety of them.
The museums in Kaunas include:.
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Kaunas is notable for the diverse culture life. Kaunas Symphony Orchestra is the main venue for classical music concerts. There is an old circus tradition in Kaunas. There was established static circus in the Vytautas park of Kaunas in the beginning of the 19th century. The only professional circus organisation in Lithuania—the Baltic Circus was founded in Kaunas in There are at least 7 professional theatres, lots of amateur theatres, ensembles, abundant groups of art and sports. Some of the best examples of culture life in Kaunas are theatres of various styles:.
The city of Kaunas has a number of parks and public open spaces. It devotes 7.
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It covers about 63 hectares and is the largest urban stand of mature oaks in Europe. To protect the unique lower landscape of Kaunas Reservoir , its natural ecosystem, and cultural heritage Kaunas Reservoir Regional Park was established in the eastern edge of Kaunas in By the initiative of a prominent Lithuanian zoologist Tadas Ivanauskas and biologist Konstantinas Regelis the Kaunas Botanical Garden was founded in It serves not only as a recreational area for public, but also serves as a showcase for local plant life, and houses various research facilities. In addition, Kaunas is home to Kaunas Zoo , the only state-operated zoo in all of Lithuania.
It is also the burial site of some signatories of the Act of Independence. There are four old Jewish cemeteries within city limits. Kaunas is a large center of industry , trade, and services in Lithuania.
The most developed industries in Kaunas are amongst the food and beverage industries, textile and light industries, chemical industry, publishing and processing, pharmaceuticals, metal industry, wood processing and furniture industry. Recently information technology and electronics have become part of the business activities taking place in Kaunas.
In addition, the city also has large construction industry which includes, but is not limited to commercial, housing and road construction. The largest wholesale, distribution and logistics company in Lithuania and Latvia JSC "Sanitex",  as well as a subsidiary of material handling and logistics company Dematic in the Baltics  have been operated in Kaunas.
Currently, Kaunas Public Logistics Centre is being built by the demand of national state-owned railway company Lithuanian Railways. The project includes mining of anhydrite, a mine with underground warehouses, building the overground transport terminal, as well as an administrative building. The Pagiriai anhydrite deposit is located The resources of thoroughly explored anhydrite in the Pagiriai deposit amount to The Lithuanian Central Credit Union—national cooperative federation for credit unions established in , is located in Kaunas.
At present the Lithuanian Central Credit Union has 61 members. Joint Lithuanian-German company "Net Frequency", based in Kaunas, is a multimedia and technology service provider. It also specialises in development of new telemetry , data base creation, mobile payment projects. Some notable changes are under construction and in the stage of disputes. In October , a automotive parts and technologies manufacturer Continental AG decided to invest over 95 million euros to build a new factory in Kaunas, which is the largest direct investment from a foreign country.
According to the official census of , there were 92, inhabitants in Kaunas: . Ethnic composition in , out of a total of , .
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Kaunas city municipality council is the governing body of the Kaunas city municipality. It is responsible for municipality laws. The council is composed of 41 members 40 councillors and a mayor all directly elected for four-year terms. In , it handled , passengers in addition to 2, tons of cargo , down from the peak of , passengers in It is one of the oldest still functioning airports in Europe used for tourism and air sports purposes and now hosts the Lithuanian Aviation Museum.
Kaunas is served by a number of major motorways. It is the most important road connection between the Baltic states. The construction of the Kaunas Railway Tunnel and Railway Bridge across the Nemunas river helped move goods from the eastern part of Russian Empire west to the German Empire and Kaunas grew rapidly in the second part of the 19th century. Since Kaunas is located at the confluence of two rivers, there were 34 bridges and viaducts built in the city at the end of , including:.
Kaunas is an important railway hub in Lithuania. First railway connection passing through Kaunas was constructed in — and opened in Kaunas Railway Station is an important hub serving direct passenger connections to Vilnius and Warsaw as well as being a transit point of Pan-European corridors I and IX. There used to be a hydrofoil route serving Nida port through Nemunas and across Curonian Lagoon. It has been repeatedly discontinued and reopened, so the most current status is unclear.
The company still exists and have its boats in working condition. The monthly E-ticket cards may be bought once and might be credited with an appropriate amount of money in various ways including the Internet. Previous paper monthly tickets were in use until August These are the longest buses used in the Baltic states. It is the biggest and most modern bus station in Lithuania. Sports in Kaunas have a long and distinguished history. Ice hockey was first played in Lithuania in Kaunas is home to some historic venues such as: the main stadium of the city— S. Dariaus ir S. Dariaus and S.
The university status Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education , founded during the Interwar period , is the only state-supported institution of tertiary physical education in Lithuania. Kaunas has also hosted the knockout stage of the European Basketball Championship of The arena is used to host sports games as well as concerts. The first golf club "Elnias" in Lithuania was opened in Kaunas in A yacht club operates in the Kaunas Reservoir Regional Park. Kaunas is often referred to as a city of students; there are about 50, students enrolled in its universities.
The first parochial school in Kaunas was mentioned in A four-form Jesuit school was opened in Kaunas in It was reorganized into a college in Other institutes of higher education are:. Kaunas has also a large number of public and private basic and secondary schools , as well as kindergartens and nurseries. Kaunas also has numerous libraries. The most important is the Kaunas County Public Library. It was established as the Central Library of Lithuania in Probably the longest established festival is the International Modern Dance Festival, which first ran in Kaunas is twinned with: .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city. For the county Kauno apskritis , see Kaunas County. City in Lithuania. Coat of arms. Diligite justitiam qui judicatis terram Latin : Cherish justice, you who judge the earth . Main article: Temporary capital of Lithuania. Main article: Kovno Ghetto. Main article: Soviet occupation of the Baltic states Main article: List of people from Kaunas.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Lithuania. Retrieved 3 January University of Chicago Press. Kaunas city municipality. Retrieved 7 June The Guardian. Retrieved 8 September Retrieved 4 November Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 7 December Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 24 August Retrieved 13 April Overview of Kaunas History". Retrieved 13 October Retrieved 29 October Encyclopedia Lituanica. Aruodai in Lithuanian. Lithuanian Institute of History. Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 29 January Encyclopedia of Baltic History group research project.
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http://coinyemining.com/2081.php Archived from the original on 29 June Overview of Kaunas History. Retrieved on 12 April Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 20 March Development of Lithuanian Energy Sector. We've already shipped paintings to most countries worldwide. If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact us! We accept returns! Our main goal is for you to be happy with the purchase. Donara Manuk Mixed technique on canvas, x cm. Donara Manuk Oil on canvas, x80 cm. Natalia Yanekina acrylic on canvas, , 80x80 cm. Mantas Daujotas Oil on canvas, 90x cm.
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